The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005)

There are two MRI viewing options for both charts: MRI 1 and MRI 2.

  • MRI 1 was recorded in 2014 at Edinburgh Imaging Facility QMRI, with a frame rate of 7.5fps. Each file has been overdubbed with “clean” audio, recorded in a recording studio.
  • MRI 2 was recorded in 2022-2023 at the Edinburgh Imaging Facility, RIE, with a frame rate of 6.25fps and a 70% increase in image resolution, compared to MRI 1. Audio for the MRI 2 files was recorded in the MRI machine using an optical microphone and post-hoc noise cancelling. We aim to replace the MRI 2 audio with clean audio in the near future.

Consonants (Pulmonic)

Video type:

Press on a symbol to play the associated video.

BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarRetroflexPalatal Velar  UvularPharyngealGlottal
Plosivepbtdʈɖcɟkɡqɢ ʔ 
Tap or Flapɾɽ
Lateral fricativeɬɮ
Lateral approximantlɭʎʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Charts reprinted with permission from The International Phonetic Association

How to refer to this resource: Lawson, E., Stuart-Smith, J., Scobbie, J. M., Nakai, S. (2018). Seeing Speech: an articulatory web resource for the study of Phonetics. University of Glasgow. 27th September 2023.